So Where Are The Memories, If They Are Not In The Brain? Date 29 December 2011, kategori Artt Bilimsel, author Güneş Tan
Prof. Karl Lashley was born in 1890 in West Virginia, he was an American psychologist and behaviorist remembered for his contributions to the study of learning and memory.
His researches showed him that memories were not localized to one part of the brain. While working toward his Ph.D. in genetics at Johns Hopkins University, Karl Lashley became associated with the influential psychologist John B. Watson. During three years of postdoctoral work on vertebrate behavior, he began formulating the research program that was to occupy the remainder of his life. In 1920 he became an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, where his prolific research on brain function gained him a professorship in 1924. He was later a professor at the University of Chicago and Harvard University.
Prof. Lashley started his researches in 1920 and continued it 40 years long. Lashleys work included research on brain mechanisms related to sense receptors and on the cortical basis of motor activities. His major work was done on the measurement of behavior before and after specific, carefully quantified, induced cortical damage in rats. He trained rats to perform specific tasks (seeking a food reward), then lesioned varying portions of the rat cortex, either before or after the animals received the training depending upon the experiment. The amount of cortical tissue removed had specific effects on acquisition and retention of knowledge, but the location of the removed cortex had no effect on the rats performance in the maze. This led Lashley to conclude that memories are not localized but widely distributed across the cortex. His study of the primary visual cortex led him to believe that the memories are not stored in brain.
When Karl Pribram was a young neurosurgery student, he was very impressed from the researches of Lashley. He realized that the patients with brain injuries, even if a large part of their brain were removed there will be no loss in memories. The memories were not disappeared even more parts of brain was taken out. He was born in 1919 in Vienna Austria. He is a professor at Georgetown University in the United States. He is a professor of psychology and psychiatry at Stanford University and Radford University. Board-certified as a neurosurgeon, Pribram did pioneering work on the definition of the limbic system, the relationship of the frontal cortex to the limbic system, the sensory-specific association cortex of the parietal and temporal lobes, and the classical motor cortex of the human brain. To the general public, Pribram is best known for his development of the holonomic brain model.
Records are in a hologram universe
The confusion created by Karl Lashleys researches has continued in Pribram until the mid 1960s when he saw the article of the physicist David Bohms holographic universe in Scientific American magazine. He got in contact with Bohm and they have created together the holonomic brain model.
David Bohm who is a research physicist in London University, implicates that our angle of seeing objectively has no reality. With all the seen matter in the universe in reality it is a dream by heart, a huge beautifully detailed hologram he says.
So, in order to understand what that means, we need to have some idea of the components and structure of a hologram. There are several explanations, but here is something of the idea. To construct a hologram you need two beams of light (lasers). One beam will bounce off the object that you want as a hologram, and the other beam will shine directly onto the special photographic plate or film. The interference patterns of those two light sources will interact on the plate. They swirl around and do not look like anything in particular if you are looking at the plate.
If, however, you shine a laser beam through the plate of film, the object will be reproduced in the 3-dimensional form of a hologram. And further more, if you tear the plate apart and shine the beam of light through any of the pieces, the whole object can be reproduced. So, in essence, each part contains the patterns for the whole picture.
One of Bohms most startling assertions is that the tangible reality of our everyday lives is really a kind of illusion, like a holographic image. Underlying it is a deeper order of existence, a vast and more primary level of reality that gives birth to all the objects and appearances of our physical world in much the same way that a piece of holographic film gives birth to a hologram.
Pribram believes memories are encoded not in neurons, or small groupings of neurons, but in patterns of nerve impulses that crisscross the entire brain in the same way that patterns of laser light interference crisscross the entire area of a piece of film containing a holographic image. Pribram stated this matter in 2 ways:
1.)In the visual cortex of the brain there is Gabor functions, (a simple shopping areas of the cells) that matches the current response functions. This results are in connection with the holographic image.
Holonomic brain theory depends also on some insights of the mathematician Dennis Gabor. He is the person who discovered the hologram, and was awarded the Nobel Prize for his contributions.
2.)In Karl Lashleys researches we see that by the animals with significantly harmed in brains, the memories does not disappeared.
To formulate this model Pribram used cine waves based Pribram Fourier theorem and Fourier analysis, which describes the form of time as waves.
Pribram says that in brain neurons, in dendrites waves there is an instance of similar models. He has published his findings in 1966 and has refined this theory in the next few years. Pribrams holonomic brain theory, explains us the brains many secrets and its great ability to access information and the capacity to store the information.
There are billions of cells in the brain; with the connections between them they can reach trillions of other cells. They work with the principles of quantum. In fact Gabor barrowed Heisenberg and Hilberts mathematic. Firstly, Hilbert has developed all these and Gabor evaluated them in Psychophysics. Pribram used this mathematical information to find out how human brains work.
By the 1970s, researchers have further expanded the theory of Pribram. British physicist Pieter van Heerden (1970) presented that recognizing the familiar objects are similar to our capacity holographic recognition. Another similar technique to the holographic to intervene can tell our ability to detect differences in the objects that have changed.
In 1972 a research held by Daniel Polen and Michael Tractenbert showed us that at some person who has photographic memory, memory is dependent on the capacity of ones brain which is able to create holographic images. People with extraordinary memory, can reach to more parts of their brains. From neuro physicists of the University of Berkeley Russell and Karen De Valois (1979) showed that the brain uses the mathematics of Fourier analysis to solve visual images. Recently, Fourier analysis is used to explain our perceptions of hearing and smelling. The brain is as a device which can make complex frequency analysis.
According to Bohms holographic universe theory he believes the reason subatomic particles are able to remain in contact with one another regardless of the distance separating them is not because they are sending some sort of mysterious signal back and forth, but because their separateness is an illusion. Bohm postulates that the ultimate nature of physical reality is not a collection of separate objects (as it appears to us), but rather it is an undivided whole that is in perpetual dynamic flux. For Bohm, the insights of relativity theory point to a universe that is undivided and in which all parts merge and unite in one totality.
Imagine an aquarium containing a fish. Imagine also that you are unable to see the aquarium directly and your knowledge about it and what it contains comes from two television cameras, one directed at the aquariums front and the other directed at its side. As you stare at the two television monitors, you might assume that the fish on each of the screens are separate entities. After all, because the cameras are set at different angles, each of the images will be slightly different. But as you continue to watch the two fish, you will eventually become aware that there is a certain relationship between them. When one turns, the other also makes a slightly different but corresponding turn; when one faces the front, the other always faces toward the side. If you remain unaware of the full scope of the situation, you might even conclude that the fish must be instantaneously communicating with one another, but this is clearly not the case. This, says Bohm, is precisely what is going on between the subatomic particles in Aspects experiment.
According to Bohm, the apparent faster-than-light connection between subatomic particles is really telling us that there is a deeper level of reality we are not privy to, a more complex dimension beyond our own that is analogous to the aquarium. And, he adds, we view objects such as subatomic particles as separate from one another because we are seeing only a portion of their reality.
Such particles are not separate parts, but facets of a deeper and more underlying unity that is ultimately as holographic and indivisible as the previously mentioned rose. And since everything in physical reality is comprised of these eidolons, the universe is itself a projection, a hologram.
In addition to its phantom-like nature, such a universe would possess other rather startling features. If the apparent separateness of subatomic particles is illusory, it means that at a deeper level of reality all things in the universe are infinitely interconnected. The electrons in a carbon atom in the human brain are connected to the subatomic particles that comprise every salmon that swims, every heart that beats, and every star that shimmers in the sky. Everything interpenetrates everything, and although human nature may seek to categorize and pigeonhole and subdivide, the various phenomena of the universe, all apportionments are of necessity artificial and all of nature is ultimately a seamless web.